Studies[ edit ] Criminologists such as Gottfredson, McKenzie, Eck, Farrington,  Sherman, Waller  and others have been at the forefront of analyzing what works to prevent crime.
There are a variety of different approaches to crime prevention that differ in terms of the focus of the intervention, the types of activities that are delivered, the theory behind how those activities are designed to bring about the desired results and the mechanisms that are applied.
Understanding the different approaches to crime prevention is important, as there are implications for determining the appropriate institutional and management arrangements necessary to support specific crime prevention interventions Weatherburn An understanding of the different approaches available and their underlying rationale and theory is also crucial to developing effective crime prevention programs and projects Eck ; Homel a.
The criminal justice approach refers to various programs delivered by police, the courts and corrections that aim to prevent recidivism among those people who have already engaged in offending behaviour and who have come into contact with the criminal justice system ECOSOC ; UNODC In this section of the report, a brief outline is provided of the theory underlying environmental and social approaches to crime prevention as these fall within the scope of the current research projectthe principles underpinning effective strategies and a brief summary of the evidence in support of the different approaches.
This information was used to assess whether there was a sound theoretical basis underpinning the interventions that had been evaluated. While an understanding of theory was important in the selection of strategies for inclusion in this review, the CCO provides a useful framework to understand how the interventions delivered a reduction in the targeted crimes if at all and to assist the transfer of these interventions to other contexts.
Environmental crime prevention The environmental approach seeks to change the specific characteristics of the environment that may cause criminal events to occur.
Situational prevention comprises a range of measures that highlight the importance of targeting very specific forms of crime in certain circumstances Clarke Underlying the situational approach are four key elements, including: The focus of the three key opportunity theories is actually quite different.
Under routine activity theory, three critical elements must occur simultaneously for a criminal event to take place—a motivated offender, a suitable target and the absence of a capable guardian Clarke Crime pattern theory seeks to explain the influence of communities and neighbourhoods, and focuses on how offenders may come across opportunities for crime in the course of their everyday lives Clarke Rational choice theory has a more individualistic focus and explores the decision-making processes that lead to an offender choosing to become involved in crime or specific criminal events, including weighing up the relative risks and rewards associated with offending Clarke ; Situational crime prevention interventions include activities such as improved security through strengthening locks and improving surveillance.
Cornish and Clarke have classified 25 situational crime prevention techniques into five broad categories that are based on the mechanisms underlying the different methods: Important lessons for the implementation of situational crime prevention projects taken from the UK experience where situational approaches have been commoninclude that it: Despite there being limitations in the evaluation literature, a review of the evidence by Eck a showed that opportunity reduction measures can reduce crime in many circumstances with little evidence of displacement.
An evaluation of the UK Reducing Residential Burglary Initiative found that areas where more money had been invested in situational prevention rather than offender-focused prevention and those that were flexible in their delivery, were generally more successful in reducing residential burglary Hope et al.
There are some notable exceptions. Further, the cost of establishing, maintaining and monitoring a CCTV system can be prohibitively expensive, and potentially exceed any financial savings that might result from a reduction in property crime Clancey This includes strategies that involve modifying the built environment to create safer places that are less crime prone or can make people feel safer such as by designing public spaces that encourage large numbers of users and provide greater natural surveillance, or by designing pedestrian thoroughfares that are well lit and do not create places for potential offenders to hide.
CPTED has a major influence on crime prevention policy and practice in Australia and in other parts of the world, and a number of state, territory and local governments now have specific planning policies that incorporate CPTED principles or guidelines Bodson et al.
Research has demonstrated that there is a strong relationship between certain characteristics of the built environment and crime levels, although the research into certain relationships such as the relationship between through-movement and connectivity and crime has been inconsistent Armitage a.
While further research into the impact of CPTED is warranted, there is sufficient evidence to support the application of CPTED principles, as well as environmental safety assessments more broadly, as a key consideration in the development of the built environment, including new development proposals and urban regeneration initiatives.
Social crime prevention Rather than focusing on the physical environment, social crime prevention is most commonly directed at trying to influence the underlying social and economic causes of crime, as well as offender motivation.
This approach tends to include crime prevention measures that take some time to produce the intended results. This may include action to improve housing, health and educational achievement, as well as improved community cohesion through community development measures.
Developmental crime prevention Developmental crime prevention initiatives are becoming increasingly popular in Australia Weatherburn There has been considerable investment in early intervention programs in Australia, many of which do not have explicit crime prevention objectives Homel et al.
Transition points occur around birth, the preschool years, transition from primary to high school and from high school to further education or the workforce Homel et al. Early intervention aims to address risk factors and enhance protective factors that impact upon the likelihood that a young person will engage in future offending behaviour Homel et al.
Risk and protective factors can be categorised into child factors, family factors, school context, life events and community and cultural factors Homel et al. Developmental programs aim to identify, measure and manipulate risk and protective factors that research has confirmed are important in predicting future offending Homel In practical terms, developmental crime prevention involves providing basic services or resources to individuals, families, schools or communities to minimise the impact of risk factors on the development of offending behaviours Homel Several factors have been identified as contributing to the successful implementation of developmental crime prevention initiatives, including:Community crime prevention programs or strategies target changes in community infrastructure, culture, or the physical environment in order to reduce crime.
The diversity of approaches include neighborhood watch, community policing, urban or physical design, and comprehensive or multi-disciplinary efforts.
The crime control model and the due process model are two different, yet similar models that was identified by Herbert Pecker and that are used in the criminal justice process.
Community crime prevention programs or strategies target changes in community infrastructure, culture, or the physical environment in order to reduce crime. The diversity of approaches include neighborhood watch, community policing, urban or physical design, and comprehensive or multi-disciplinary efforts. Strategy & Governance WA Police Force Community Crime Prevention Fund Guidelines (5) PAYMENTS All applicants will receive written advice of the outcome of their application and a letter of agreement. Crime prevention refers to the range of strategies that are implemented by individuals, Crime prevention approaches, theory and mechanisms. was necessary to ensure that evidence can be accumulated for certain interventions and lessons learned about their application to specific contexts.
Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter termed a "universal script" has been advanced for correctly identifying all the stages in the commission process of a crime. Application to It has been suggested that cybercriminals be assessed in terms of their criminal attributes, which include skills, knowledge.
To this end, the article examines successful ecological prevention models from other prevention fields, identifies the components of multilevel prevention that appear critical to efficacy and discusses their application to existing and emerging sexual violence prevention strategies.
The major conceptual models of crime prevention are the situational, social, and developmental crime prevention strategies.
However, there has been increasing acceptance that crime is more complex in nature so that not one single strategy is effective in deterring crime. 33 CHAPTER 2 CRIME PREVENTION MODELS FOCUSSING ON THE CRIMINAL INTRODUCTION Approaches to crime prevention can focus either on .