John Langdon Haydon Down, published a paper describing some of the characteristics of Down Syndrome, which today bears his name. He reported Observations on the ethnic classification of idiots, that established the eponym, and misguided the following generations of scientists and physicians.
Read now Diagnosis Women with a higher chance of having a child with Down syndrome may receive screening and diagnostic tests. Screening tests can estimate the probability of Down syndrome being present.
Some diagnostic tests can definitively tell whether the fetus has the condition. Screening tests Women aged 30 to 35 years or older may Essay on downsyndrome genetic screening during pregnancy because the risk of having a child with Down syndrome increases as women age.
At 11 to 14 weeks, an ultrasound can measure the clear space in folds of tissue behind the neck of a developing baby. Triple screen or quadruple screen: At 15 to 18 weeks, this measures the quantities of various substances in the mother's blood.
This combines the results of first-trimester blood tests and screening tests, with or without nuchal translucency, with second-trimester quadruple screening results.
A blood test that analyzes fetal DNA found in the maternal blood. At 18 to 20 weeks, a detailed ultrasound is combined with blood test results. Screening is a cost-effective and less invasive way to determine if more invasive diagnostic tests are needed.
However, unlike diagnostic tests, they cannot confirm whether Down syndrome is present. Diagnostic tests Diagnostic tests are more accurate in detecting Down syndrome and other problems. They are usually performed inside the uterus, and they increase the risk of miscarriage, fetal injury, or preterm labor.
At 8 to 12 weeks, a tiny sample of placenta is obtained for analysis, using a needle inserted into the cervix or the abdomen. At 15 to 20 weeks, a small amount of amniotic fluid is obtained for analysis, using a needle inserted into the abdomen.
Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling: After 20 weeks, a small sample of blood is taken from the umbilical cord for analysis, using a needle inserted into the abdomen. Down syndrome can also be diagnosed after a baby is born by inspecting the infant's physical characteristics as well as blood and tissue.
Treatment There is no specific treatment for Down syndrome. People with the syndrome will receive care for health problems, just as other people do. However, additional health screening for common problems may be recommended.
Early intervention can help the individual maximize their potential and prepare them to take an active role in the community.
Apart from physicians, special educators, speech therapists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, and social workers can all help. Children who have specific difficulties with learning and development may be eligible for educational support, either in a mainstream or specialized school.
In recent years, the tendency has increasingly been to attend mainstream schools, often with additional support to help them integrate and progress. Types The most common form of Down syndrome is known as trisomy 21, a condition where individuals have 47 chromosomes in each cell instead of Trisomy 21 is caused by an error in cell division called nondisjunction.
This leaves a sperm or egg cell with an extra copy of chromosome 21 before or at conception. This variant accounts for 95 percent of Down syndrome cases. The remaining 5 percent of Down syndrome cases are due to conditions called mosaicism and translocation.
Mosaic Down syndrome results when some cells in the body are normal while others have Trisomy Robertsonian translocation occurs when part of chromosome 21 breaks off during cell division and attaches to another chromosome, usually chromosome The presence of this extra part of chromosome 21 causes some Down syndrome characteristics.
A person with a translocation does not have any special physical features, but they are more likely to have a child with an extra 21st chromosome. Outlook A person with Down syndrome will be able to do many of the things that other people do.Peer Partner Final Project Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition in which an individual possesses extra genetic material, specifically an extra complete or partial duplicate of chromosome 21 in some or all of an individuals cells.
This results in several hallmark characteristics and acute cognitive affects. Some of the physical traits . Free Down Syndrome papers, essays, and research papers.
Down Syndrome is the most common genetic disorder. Down syndrome affects people of all ages, races, and economic levels.
It is the most frequently occurring chromosomal abnormality. It occurs about once in every to 1, births. There are over , people in the Untied States alone that have /5(3). Vulnerability and inadequacy is a feeling derived from empathy — the feeling of being overwhelmed by emotion.
When a man enters her life, there is an emotionally violent (metaphysical) disruption to her ever day sense of being causing insecurities, elation, a feeling of euphoria and the sublime. Down Syndrome is a chromosomal condition related to chromosome It affects 1 in to 1 in born infants.
People who have Down Syndrome have learning difficulties, mental retardation, a different facial appearance, and poor muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. Individuals with Down Syndrome also have an increased risk for having heart .
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