Biometric functionality[ edit ] Many different aspects of human physiology, chemistry or behavior can be used for biometric authentication. The selection of a particular biometric for use in a specific application involves a weighting of several factors.
Biometric recognition involves matching, within a tolerance of approximation, of observed biometric traits against previously collected data for a subject.
Approximate matching is required due to the variations in biological attributes and behaviors both within and between persons. There are numerous sources of uncertainty and variation in biometric systems, including the following: Biometric characteristics and the information captured by biometric systems may be affected by changes in age, environment, disease, stress, occupational factors, training and prompting, intentional alterations, sociocultural aspects of the situation in which the presentation occurs, changes in human interface with the system, and so on.
As a result, each interaction of the individual with the system at enrollment, identification, and so on will be associated with different biometric information. Individuals attempting to thwart recognition for one reason or another also contribute to the inherent uncertainty in biometric systems.
Sensor age and calibration, how well the interface at any given time mitigates extraneous factors, and the sensitivity of sensor performance to variation in the ambient environment such as light levels all can play a role.
Feature extraction and matching algorithms. Differences in feature extraction algorithms affect performance, with effects sometimes aggravated by requirements for achieving interoperability among proprietary systems.
Differences between matching algorithms and comparison scoring mecha- 1 For example, each finger of each person will generate a different fingerprint image every time it is observed due to presentation angle, pressure, dirt, moisture, different sensors, and so on.
Thus each person can produce a large number of different impressions from a single finger—many of which will be close enough that good algorithms can match them to the correct finger source.
Page 4 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. It may also be inappropriately applied to a context other than the one for which it was originally created, owing to mission creep for example, using the data collected in a domain purely for the sake of convenience in a domain that demands high data integrity or inappropriate re-use of information for instance, captured biometric information might be incorrectly assumed to be of greater fidelity when transferred to a system where higher fidelity is the norm.
Many gaps exist in our understanding of the nature and extent of distinctiveness and stability of biometric traits across individuals and groups. No biometric characteristic is known to be entirely stable and distinctive across all groups. Biometric traits have fundamental statistical properties, distinctiveness, and differing degrees of stability under natural physiological conditions and environmental challenges, many aspects of which are not well understood, especially at large scales.
Complicating matters, the underlying biological properties and distribution of biometric traits in a population are generally observed only through filters interposed by measurement processes and instruments and subsequent biometric feature extraction.
Thus, the development of a science of human individual distinctiveness is essential to effective and appropriate use of biometric recognition.
Better understanding of biometric traits in human beings could be gained by carefully designed data collection and analysis. The biological underpinnings of physical distinctiveness and the stability of many biometric characteristics under natural physiological conditions and environmental challenges require further justification from basic biological and empirical studies.
Importantly, the underlying distinctiveness of a biometric trait cannot be assessed apart from an understanding of the stability, accuracy, and inherent variability of a given measure.
Another fundamental characteristic of biometric recognition is that it requires decision making under uncertainty by both the automated recognition system and the human interpreters of its results. A biometric match represents not certain recognition but a probability of correct recognition, while a nonmatch represents a probability rather than a definitive conclusion that an individual is not known to the system.
That is, some fraction of results from even the best-designed biometric system will be incorrect or indeterminate: Moreover, assessing the validity of the match results, even given Page 5 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Even very small probabilities of misrecognitions—the failure to recognize an enrolled individual or the recognition of one individual as another—can become operationally significant when an application is scaled to handle millions of recognition attempts.This course will give you an overview of biometrics technology, the strengths and weaknesses of different types of biometric, emerging standards for using biometrics for authentication, and the implications of using biometrics for payments.
•Overview of Biometrics •How Biometrics Supports Your Mission •Tactics, Techniques and Procedures Your role in collecting Biometrics. Accomplishing tomorrows training requirements today. Summary •Biometrics defined •Purpose of Biometrics •Core biometric functions.
Overview of Biometrics History of Biometrics.
|One night after everyone has gone home from the office, try taking a walk past all the PCs in a division of your company and look for evidence of passwords being written down.|
|Summary | Biometric Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities | The National Academies Press||Biometric functionality[ edit ] Many different aspects of human physiology, chemistry or behavior can be used for biometric authentication. The selection of a particular biometric for use in a specific application involves a weighting of several factors.|
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|Windows Authentication Overview | Microsoft Docs||Biometrics is presently a buzzword in the domain of information security as it provides high degree of accuracy in identifying an individual. Each human being is unique in terms of characteristics, which make him or her different from all others.|
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The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure). We typically choose to interpret biometrics as methods for determining unique (or relatively unique, if such an expression is allowed) features of a person's body to distinguish them from the rest of humanity.
Biometric Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities addresses the issues surrounding broader implementation of this technology, making two main points: first, biometric recognition systems are incredibly complex, and need to be addressed as such.
Second, biometric recognition is an inherently probabilistic endeavor. Biometrics Overview Biometrics is the science of using one or more unique physical characteristics or behavioral traits to identify individuals.
The best-known biometric identification method is fingerprinting. popularly used biometrics in terms of the character measured, the devices used to collect the biometric, features extracted, the algorithms used and the areas of applicability.