To those less familiar with chemistry, the term "salt" is generally thought of as NaCl table salthowever, a "salt" should be thought of as the product of an acid-base reaction. The pH of a solution can range from 0 to So a solution that is acidic has a pH of less than 7. Lime is a strong base and an excess of lime can quickly produce a pH above
Such organizations include companies that sell book club memberships, magazines, and retail consumer and business products. These establishments deliver products and services through the mail. This classification does not encompass direct-mail advertising firms or stores that are operated by catalog companies for the purpose of on-site retail sales.
The industry experienced great growth during the s when mail-order selling activity leaped more than percent. From tomail order sales grew at a rate of more than 9. The catalog industry saw renewed opportunity with the growth of Internet shopping in the late s. While some new Internet sales companies seemed to pose a threat to established nonstore retailers, the industry soon reacted by adopting the new technology.
As ofan estimated 90 percent of catalog sellers who were members of the Direct Marketing Association were online in some way, and 60 percent of them were selling over the Internet.
Sales were slowed in the fourth quarter of following the September 11 terrorist attacks, when the entire U. Although business rebounded duringwar with Iraq in kept a damper on the economy. Catalog and direct-mail sellers also saw some blurring of the lines in the industry at the beginning of the twenty-first century, as retailers launched catalogs, catalog sellers opened stores, and many merchants explored the option of selling via the Internet.
The industry also went through a period of consolidation through a host of mergers and acquisitions. And a new line of business opened as some direct marketers found they could sell management expertise to newer companies, especially Internet merchants who lacked the know-how to distribute products smoothly.
Organization and Structure The catalog and mail-order house industry encompasses companies that sell products through all "non-store" retail channels, including radio, television, and computers. Although larger retailers, such as J. Penney, typically maintain an inventory warehouse, most industry participants keep little, if any, inventory on hand.
When a customer orders a product, the retailer contacts a wholesale company that ships the product to the retailer or directly to the customer. Because they refrain from traditional retail purchasing, manufacturing, and inventory management activities, many nonstore retailers are essentially marketing companies.
Some catalog companies, for instance, simply assemble a group of complimentary products manufactured by other companies and try to market those items in a catalog to the customers they think would be most interested in them.
Similarly, many direct mail and broadcast media retailers essentially act as middlemen, selling products that are manufactured and stored by wholesalers. The three major categories of nonstore retailing include business, consumer, and charitable sales.
Throughout the s, consumer sales accounted for approximately 50 percent of industry revenues, while business and charitable sales each garnered about 25 percent of the market. About 60 percent of consumer nonstore sales were products, while the remaining 40 percent were services.
Of nonstore consumer product sales, more than 80 percent were derived from specialty items that were not commonly available in stores.
The remaining approximately 20 percent came from sales of general merchandise. Of nonstore sales of consumer services, about 40 percent of revenues were garnered from financial services.
One tremendous advantage that companies in this industry enjoy, however—whether they secure sales via catalogs, direct mail, the Internet, or television home shopping—is the elimination or severe curtailment of two expenses that have a tremendous impact on the bottom line of traditional retailers: The primary disadvantage of mail and broadcast retailing is high advertising costs.
The cost of producing and delivering catalogs, fulfilling orders, and servicing customers often leaves retailers with slim profit margins, or losses, if the response to a promotion is poor.
The cost of mailing a simple letter and brochure typically ranges from 40 to 65 cents per piece, and the retailer often expects only. In fact, a 2 percent response rate is considered highly successful in the mail-order business.
Mean response rates from catalogs peaked at 8 percent inand the drop to 5 percent by was seen as a possible portent of slowing in the industry.
Nonstore retail industry consumers differ from store customers in several ways, which affects the method companies use to reach the target market.
Catalog shoppers, for instance, are better educated, are more likely to work in professional and managerial capacities, earn more money, are more conservative and traditional, and are more comfortable with modern technology and financial instruments.
Catalog shoppers are also more likely to be women—58 percent to 42 percent, versus an even percentage of store shoppers. A greater percentage of nonstore customers are also divorced and middle-aged.
For example, 25 percent of catalog shoppers are 35 to 44 years old, versus only 17 percent of store customers. Many demographic differences bode well for non-store merchandisers.
Dual-income households, for example, are more likely to shop through catalogs. Catalog shoppers are also more likely to listen to media advertisements and typically expose themselves to more news and financial media. The first known catalog dates from when Aldus Manutius of Venice offered 15 books by Greek and Latin authors for sale.
Mail-order operations have existed in the United States since colonial days. In fact, Benjamin Franklin is believed to have initiated the industry with the first direct-mail offer ever presented to the public.
Not until the latter part of the nineteenth century, however, did mail order assume a significant role in the economy.Case Questions 1.
Which three environmental forces are likely to have the greatest effects on FedEx? The three environmental forces that are likely to have the greatest effects on FedEx are the mature overnight delivery market, the technology boom, and unexpected natural disasters. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from monstermanfilm.com The catalog and mail-order house industry, or non-store retail industry, is comprised of establishments primarily engaged in the retail sale of .
The outside in perspective 4 Markets over Resources 4 Opportunity driven. 5 Market demand and industry structure 6 Adaptation to environment 6 Attaining advantageous position 6 Acquiring necessary resources 6 Inside-out perspective 7 2.
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Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social, economic, and political elements.
Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food, clothing and shelter.